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1310 The City of Dundee

1310 The City of Dundee

Dundee
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Dundee,Scotland is the fouthe-largest city in Scotland and the most settement in the United Kingdom.It lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay,which feeds into the North Sea.Under the name of Dundee City,it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland.

The town developed into a burgh in the Midieval times,and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the jute industry.This along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute,jam,and journalism".

The population of the City of Dundee was estimated to be 152,320.Dundee’s recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the time 1971 census,but ha since declined.

Today,Dundeee is promoted as ‘One City,Many Discoveries’ in honour of Dundee’s history of scientific activties and of the RRS Discovery,Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s Antarctic exploration vessel,which was built in Dundee,Scotland and is now berthed in the city harbor.Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s,and the city now accounts for 10% of the Uninted Kingdom’s digtal-entertainment industry.Dundee,Scotland has two universities-the University of Dundee and the University of Abertay Dundee.A $1,600,650,000 master plane to regenerte and reconnect the Waterfront of the city center is expected to be completed within a 30 year period,with the Dundee Queen Victoria and Prince Albert Museum at a cost of $72 million.

History
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The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts : the common Celtic place-name element dun,meaning fort ; and a second part that may derive from a Celtic element,cognate with the Gaelic de`,meaning fire.

While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant,the source of Dundee’s success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of King William I of Scotland or known as King William the Lion of Scotland’s charter,granting Dundee to his younger brother,Divid of Scotland (later David of Scotland Earl of Huntingdon) in the late 12th century.The situation of the town it promotion by David of Scotland Earl of Huntingdon as a trading center,led to a period of prosperity and growth.The earldom was passed down to David of Scoland’s descendants amongst whom was John Balliol,the town becoming a Royal Burgh on the coronation of John as the King of Scotland in 1292.The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years durinf the First War of Scottish Independence and recaptured by King Robert I or known as King Robert the Bruce in early 1312.The original Royal Burghal chaters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Kingrobert the Bruce in 1327.

The burgh suffered considerably during the conflict known as the Rough Wooing of 1543,and was occupied by the English forces of Sir Andrew Dudley from 1547.In 1548 unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force,Sir Andrew Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground.In 1645,during the Scotlan in the Wars of the Three Kindoms,Dundee was again besieged,this time by the Royalist James Graham 1st Marquess of Montrose.The town was finally destroyed by Parliamentarian forces,led by George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle in 1651.The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jacobitism cause when John Graham of Claverhouse 1st Viscount Dundee raised the House of Stuart standard on the Dundee Law in 1689.

The enconomy of the midieval Dundee centered on the export of raw wool,with the production of finished textiles being a rection to recession in the 15th century.The introduction of two government acts in the mid eighteenth century had a profound effect on Dundee’s industrail success.The textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills,stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on Osnaburg linen produced for export.Expansion of the whaling industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act,introduced in 1750 to increase Great Britain’s maritime and naval skillbase.Dundee ans Scotland more generally,saw rapid population increase at the end of the 18th century and begining of the 19th century,with the city’s population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.

The phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles,particularly for the production of cheaper,tough fabrics.The discovery that the dry fibers of jute could be lubricated with whale oil (of which Dundee had surfeit,following the opening of its gasworks) to allow it to be processed in mechanised mills resulted the Dundee mills rapidly converting from linen to jute,which sold at quater of the price of flax.Interruption of Prussian (Germany) flax imports during the Crimean War and of cotton during the American Civil War resulted in a period of inflated prosperity for Dundee and the jute industry dominated Dundee throughout the latter half of the 19th century.Unprecedented immigration,notably of Irish workers,led to accelerated urban expansion,and at the height of the industry’s success,Dundee supported 62 jute mills,employing some 50,000 workers.

The rise of the textile industries brought with its an expansion of supporting industries,and extensive development of the waterfront area started in 1815 to cope with increased demand on port capacity.At its height 200 ships per year were built there,including Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s Antarctic reseach vessel,the RRS Discovery.This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city.A significant whaling industry was based in Dundee largely existing to supply the jute mills with whale oil.Whaling ceased in 1912 and shipbuilding ceased in 1981.

While the city’s economy was dominate by the Jute industry,it also became known for smaller industries.Most notable among thes were James Keiller’s and Sons,established in 1795.which pioneered commerial marmalade (jam) production,and the publishing firm David Coupar Thomson &Company,which was founded in the city in 1905 and remains that largest employer after the health and leisure industries.Dundee was said to be built on the ‘three Js’.Jute,Jam,andJournalism.

The town was also the location of one of the worst rail disasters in British history,the Tay Bridge disaster.The first Tay Ray Bridge was opened in 1879.It collapsed less than a year later during a storm,as a passenger train passed over it,resulted in the loss of 75 lives.The most destructive five in the city’s history came in 1906,reportedly sending "rivers of burning scotch whiskey" through the street.

The jute industry fell into decline in the early 20th century,partly due to reduced demand for jute products and partly due to inability to compete with the emerging industry in Calcutta,India.This give rise to unemployment levels far in excess of the national average,peaking the inter-war period,but major recovery was seen in the post-war period,thanks to the arrival first of American light engineering companies like Timex and NCR,and subsequent expansion into microeletronics.

A $479 million master plane to regenerate Dundee Waterfront is expected to last for a 30 year period.The aims of the project will be to reconnect the city center to the waterfront;impove facilties for walking,cyclist,and buses;peplacing the existing inner ring road with a pair of east/west tree lined boulevards;a new civic square and re-opened dock streching from Caird Hall and regenerated railway station and arrival space at the western edge.

Governance
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Dundee war granted Royal Burgh status on the coronation of John Ballion as King of Scotland in 1292.The city has two mottos-Latin:Dei Donum(English:Gift of God) and Prudentia et Candore (With Throught and Purity) although usually only the later is used for civic purpose.

Prior to 1996,Dundee was governed by the City of Dundee District Council.This was formed in 1975,implementing boundaries imposed in the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973.Under these boundaries,the Angus Burgh and District of Monifieth,and the Perth electoral division of Longforgan (which included Invergowrie) were annexed to the county of the city of Dundee.In 1996,Dundee City unitary authority was created following implementation of the Local Government ect.(Scotland) Act 1994.This placed Monifieth and Invergowrie in the unitary authorities of Angus and Perth and Kinross,largely reinstating the pre-1975 county boundaries.Some controversy has ensued as a result of these boundary changes,with Dundee city councillors arguing for the return of Monifieth and Invergowrie.

Local Government

Dunee is on of 32 council areas of Scotlan,and is repesented by the Dundee City Council-local authority composed of 29 elected councillors.Previously the city was a county of the city and later a district of the Tayside region.Council meetings take place in the City Chambers,which opened in 1933 in City Square.The civic head and chair of the council is known as the Lord Provost,a position similar to that of mayor in other cities.Dundee House,the new headquarters for the city council on North Lindsay Street.This has replaced Tayside House which is to be demolished as part of the Dundee Waterfront improvements.

The council was controlled by a minority coalition of Labor Party and Liberal Memocrat Party of 12 councillors,with the support of the Conservative Party who had five.Although the Scottish National Party (SNP) was the largest party on the council,with 11 councillors.Elections of the council are on a four year cycle,the most recent.Previously,Councillors were elected from single-member wards by the first past the post system of election,although this changed election,due to the Local Governance (Scotland).Eight new multi-member wards were introduced,each electing three or four councillors by single transferable vote,to produce a form of proportional representation.

the election resulted in no single party having overall control, with 13 Scottish National Party,10 Labor Party,3 Conservative Party,2Liberal Democrate Party,and 1 Independent Party Councillors.A by election in the Mayfield Ward changed the balance to 14 Scottish National Party,9 Labor Party,3 Conservative Party,2 Liberal Democat Party,and 2 Independent Party Councillors.The Local Elctions returned a council made up of 16 Scottish National Party,10 Labor Party,1 Conservative Party,1 Liberal Democat Party,and 1 Independent Party Councillors,giving the Scottish Nation Party overall control.

Westminster and Holyrood

For election to the British House of Commons at Palace of Westinster,the city area and portions of the Angus council area are divided in two constituencies.The constituncies of Dundee East and Dundee West are as of 1999 represented by John MacAllion (Labory Party) and Ernie Ross (Labor Party) respectively.For elections to the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood,the city area is divided between three constituencies.The Dundee East (Holyrood) constitunency and the Dundee West (Holyrood) constituency are entirely within the city area.The Angus South (Holyrood) constituency includes north-eastern and north-western portion of the city area.All three constituncies are within the North East Scotland electoral region:John McAllion (Labor Party is the Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for the Dundee East constituency,Ian Jenkins (Liberal Democat Party) is the Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for the Dundee West constituency.

Dundee is also part of the pan-Scottish European constituency which elects seven Member of the European Parliament (MEP) using the D’Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.Scotland returns two Labor Party Member of the European Parliament (MEP),two Scottish National Party (SNP) Member of the European Parliament (MEP),one Conservative and Union Party Member of the European Parliament (MEP) and one Liberal Democat Member of the European Parliament (MEP),to the European Parliament.

Geography
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Dunndee sites onthe north bank of the Firth of Tay on the eastern ,North Sea Coast of Scotland.The city lies 36.1 miles (58 kilometers) North-Northeast of Edinburgh,Scotland and 360.6 mile (580 kilometers)North-Northwest of London,England.The built-up area occupies a roughly retangular shape 8.3 miles (13 kilometers) long by 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) wide,aligened in an east to west direction and occupies an area of 60 kilometers (37 kilometers.The town is bisected by a line of hills streching from Balgay Hill (elevation of 143 meters) 469.1 feet in the west end of the city,through the Dundee Law 570.8 feet (174 meters) which occupies,the center of the built up area,to Gallow Hill 272 feet (83 meters),between ridge lies a vally through which cuts the Dighty water buirn,the elevation falling around 147.6 feet (45 meters.North of the Dighty Vally lies the Sidlaw Hills,the most prominent hill being Craigow Hill 1492.7 feet (455 meters).

The western boundary and eastern boundary of the city are marked by two burns that are tributaries of the River Tay.On the western-most boundary of the city,the Lochee burn meets the Fowlis burn,forming the Invergowrie burn,which meets the River Tay at Invergowrie basin.The Dighty Water enters Dundee from the village of Strathmartine and marks the boundaries of a number of northern districs of the cityyjoining the River Tay between Barnhill and Monifieth.The Scouring burn in the west end of the city and Dens Burn in the east,botyh of which played important roles in the industrial development of the city,have now been culverted over.

Geology
The city lies within the Sidlaw-Ochil anticline,and the predominant bedrock type is Old Red Sandstone of the Arbuthnoit-Garvock Group.Differential weathering of a series of igneous intrusion has yielded number of prominent hills in the landscape,most notably the Dundee Law (a late Silurian/ early Devonian Mafic rock intrusion) and Balgay Hill (a Felsic rock intrusion of simiar age).To the east of the city,in Craigie and Broughty Ferry,the bedrock geology is of extrusive rock,including mafic lava and tuff.

The land surrounding Dundee,particularly that in the lower lying areas of the West and East of the city bears high quality soil that is particularly suitable for areble farming.It is predominantly of a brown forest soil type with some gleying ,the lower parts being formed from raised beach sand and gravels derived from Old Red Sandstone and lavas.

Urban Environment
Very liyyle of pre-Scottish Reformation Dundee remains,the destruction suffered in the War of the Rough Wooin being almost total with only scattered roofless shells remaining.The Area occupied by the midieval burgh of Dundee extends between East Port and west Port,which formerly held the gates to the walled city.The shoreline has been altered considerable since the early 19th century through developement of the harbor area and land reclamation.Several areas on the periphery of the burgh saw industrial development with the building of textile mills from the end of the 18th century.Their placement was dictated by the need for a water supply for the modern steam powered machinery,and areas around the Lochee Burn (Lochee),Scouring Burn (Blackness),and Dens Burn (Dens Road area) saw particular concentration of mills.The post war period saw expansion of the industry of eastates along the Kingsway.

Working clas housing spread rapidy and without control throughout the Victorian Era,particularly in the Hawkhill,Blackness Road,Dens Road,and Hilltown areas.Depite the comparative wealth of the Victorian Dundee as a whole,living standars for the working classes were very poor.A general lack of town planning coupled with the influx of labour during the expansion of the Jute industry resulted in the unsanitary,squalid,and cramped housing for much of the population.While gradual improvements and slum clearance began in the late 19th century,the bulding of the groundbreaking Logie housing estate marked the begining of Dundee’s expansion through the building of planned housing estates,under the vision of the city architect James Thomson,whose legacy also included the housing estate of Craigiebank and the begining of an improved transport infrastructure by planning the Kinsway bypass.

Modernisation of the city center continued in the post-war period.The midieval Overgates was demoished in the early 1960s to make way for a shopping center,followed by construction of the inner ring road and the Wellgate Shopping Center.The Tay Road Bridge,completed in 1966 had as its northern landfall the docklands of central Dundee,and the new associated road system resulted in the city center beining cut off from the river.An acute shortage of housing in the late 1940s was addressed by a series of large housing estates built in the northern environs including the Fintry,Craigie,Charlston,and Douglas areas in the 1950s and early 1960s.These were followed by increasingly cost-effective and sometimes poorly planned housing in throughout the 1960s.Much of this,in particular the high rise bock of flats of Lochee,Kirkton,Trottick.Whitfield,Ardler,and Menzishell and the prefabrication Sharne housing blocks at Whitfield,have been demolished since the 1990s or are scheduled for future demolition.

Climate
The climate,as is the case with the rest of North-West Europe is Oceanic (Koppen-Geiger classification Cfb).Mean temperature and rainfall is typical for the east coast of Scotland,and with its sheltered estuarine position,mean daily maximuns are slighty higher then coastal areas to the North,particularly in Spring and Summer.The nearst official Met Office weather station is at Mylnefield,Invergowrie which is situated about 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) west of the City Center.

Demography
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According to the census,th City of Dundee had a population of 154,674.A more recent population estimate of the City of Dundee has been recorded at 152,320.The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland.The age group from 30 to 44 forms the largest portion of the population (20%).The median age of males and females living in Dundee was 37 and 40 year respectively,compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.

The place of birth of the town’s residents was 94.16% United Kingdom (including 87.85% from Scotland),,0.42% Republic of Ireland,1.33% from other Europen Union countries,and 3.09% from elswhere in the wold.The economic activity of residents aged 16-74 was 35.92% in full-time employment,10.42% in part-time employment,4.25% self-employed,5.18% unemployed,7.82% students with jobs,4.73% students without jobs,15.15% retired,4.54% looking after home or family,7.92% permantly sick or disable,and 4.00% economically inactive for other reasons.Compard with the average demography of Scotland,Dundee has both low proportions of people born outside the united Kingdom and for people over 75 years old

Natives of Dundee are called Dundonians and are often recogisable by their distinctive of Scots as well as their accent,which most noticeably subsitutes the monophtong /e/in place of the diphtong /ai/.Dundee,and Scotland more generally,saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th century and begining of the 19th century,with the city’s population increased from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.Of particular significance was an influx of Irish workers in the early to mid-19th century,attracted by the prospect of employment in the textiles industries.In 1851,18.9% of people living in Dundee were Irish birth.

The city has also attracted immigrants from Italy,fleeing poverty and famine,and Poland,seeking refuge from the anti-Jewish pogroms in the 19th century,and later,World War II in the 20th century.Today,Dundee has a sizeable ethnic minority population,and has the highest Asian population (~3,500) in Scotland after Glasgow and Edinburgh.

The city’s universities draw a large nuber of students from abroad (mostly Irish and European Union but with an increasing number from countries in the Far East),and account for 14.2% of the population,the highest population of the four largest Scottish cities.

Economy
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The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city’s economy.While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population,new industries were attracted and encouraged.NCR Corporation selected Dundee,Scotland as the base of operations for the United Kingdom in late 1945,primarily becaused of the lack of damage the city sustained in the war,good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine.Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on June 11,1947.A fortnight after 10th anniversary of the plant the 250,000th cash machine was produced.By the 1960s,NCR Corporation had become the principal employer of the city producing cash registers,and later ATMs,at several of Dundee plants.The firm developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers.Astral ,a Dundee-based firm that manufactured and sold refregerators and spin dryers was merge into Morphy Richards and rapidly expanded to employ over 1,000 people.The development in Dundee of a Michelin tire-production factlity helped to abborb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry,particlarly with the abolition of the jute control by the Board of Trade on April 30,1969.

Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the 1980s with the loss of nearly 10,000 manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards,cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute tade.To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions,Dundee was declared an Enterprise Zone in January 1984.In 183,the first Sinclare Reseach ZX Spectrum home computer were produced in Dundee,Scotland by Timex.In the same year the company broke production records,despite a sit-in by workers protesting against job cuts and plant to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket.Timex closed its Dundee plant in 1993 following an acrimonious six months industrial dispite.

Modern Day

Dundee is regional employment and education center,with over 300,000 people with 30 minutes drive to the city center and around 630,000 people within one hour.Many people from North East Fife,Angus,and Perth and Kinrose commute to the city.In there were 30 employers who employed 300 or more staff.The largest employer in the city are NHS Tayside,Dundee City Council,University of Dundee,Tesco,David Coupar Thomson & Company,and British Telecommunication Group.Other employers included limited and private companies such as NCR Corporation,Michelin Tires,SiTel,Alliance Trust,Norwich Union,Royal Bank of Scotland,Asda Stores,Stagecoach Strathtay Scottish,Tayside Contracts,Tokheim,Scottish Citylink Coaches Limited,WH Brown Construstion,C J Lang & Son,Joinery and Timber Creation,HBOS plc,Debenhams plc,National Express Dundee,Travel Dundee,William Lee Gore &Associates Incorpated.The only sectors to see job increases between were in education and human health and social work activities,while manufacturing and adminstration and support service activities both saw a significant decline.Average weekly earnings of full-time employers in Dundee was $777.57;men received $817.20 and women $674.50.Averge earnings in Dundee increased from $523.42 to $777.57.

The biomedical and biotechnology sectors,including start-up companies arising from university reseach,employ just under 1,000 people directly and nearly 2,000 indirectly.Information technology and Video game development have been important industries in the city for more than 20 years.Rockstar North,developer of Lemmings and the Grand Theft Auto series was founded in Dundee as DMA Design Limited by David Jones;an undergraduate of the University of Abertay Dundee.Other game development studios in Dundee include Denki,Ruffian Games,Dynomo Games Limited,4J Studios,Cohort Studios amongst others.

Dundee is also a key retail destination for North East Scotlad and has been ranked 4th in Retail Ranking in Scotland.The city center offers a wide variety of retailers,department stores,and independent specialist stores.The Murraygate and High Street forms the main pedestrian area and is home to a number of main anchors such as Mark and Spencer,Monsoon Accessorize,and Zara.The main pedestrian area also connect the two large shopping centers;420,000 square feet (39,000 square meters) Overgate Shopping Center which anchored by Debenhams,H&M,Next,and Primark and the 310,000 square feet (29,000 square meters) Wellgate Shopping Center by British Home Stores Limited,Home Bargains,and Peacocks.Other retail areas in the city include Gallagher Retail Park,Kingsway East Retail Park,and Kingsway West Retail Park.

Landmarks
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The city and its landscape is dominated by The Dundee Law and the Firth of Tay.The Dundee Law,the large hill that lies to the north of the City Center was the site of an Iron Age Hill Fort,upon which the Dundee Law War Memorial,designed by Thomas Braddock,was erected in 1921 to commemorte the fallen of World War I.The waterfront,much altered by reclamation in the 19th century,retains several of the docks that once were the hub of the Jute industry and Whaling industry,including the Camperdown Dock and Victoria Dock.The Victoria Dock is the home of the frigate HMS Unicorn and the North Carr Lightship,while the RRS Discovery occupies Craig Pier,from while the ferries to Fife once sailed.

The oldest building in the city is St. Mary’s Tower,which dates to the late 15th century.This forms part of the City Churches,which consists St.Clements Church,dating to 1787-1788 and Samuel Bell,Old St.Paul’s Church and St.David’s Church,built in 1841-1842 by William Burn,and St.Mary’s Church,rebuilt in 1843-1844,also by William Burn following a fire.Other significant churches in the city include the Gothic Revival Episcopal Cathedal of St.Paul’s built by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 1853 on the site of Dundee Castle in the High Street and the Roman Catholic cathedral of St.Andrew’s built in 1835 by Sir George Mathewson in Nethergate.

As a result of the destruction suffered during the Rough Wooing,little of the midieval city (aside from St.Mary’s Tower) remains and the earliest surviving domestic structures date from the Early Modern Era.A notable example is the Wishart Arch (or East Point) in Cowgate.It is the last surviving portion of the city walls and,dates prior to 1548;owes its continued existence to its associatin with the Protestant Martyr George Wishart,who is said to have preached to plague victims from the East Point in 1544.Another is the building complex on High Street known as Gardyne Land,part of which date from around 1560.The Howff Burial Ground in the northern part of the City Center also dates from this time,having been gifted to the city by Queen Mary I of Scotland or known as Mary Queen of Scots in 1564,having previously served as the grounds of a Franciscan Abbey.

Several castles can be found in Dundee,mostly dating to the Early Modern Era.The earlist part of Mains Castle in Caird Park were built by David Graham in 1562 on the site of an early hunting lodge of 1460.Dudhope Castle,originally the seat of the Scrymgeour family,dates to the late 16th century and was built on the site of earlier keep of 1460.Claypotts Castle,a striking Z plan castle in West Ferry,was built by John Strachan dates to 1569-1588.The ruins of Powrie Castle,North of Fintry date from the 16th century castly north.

North of the City Churches,at the end of Reform Street,lies the High School of Dundee,built in 1829-1834 by George Angus in Greek Revival Style.Another school building of note is Morgan Academy on Forfar Road,built in 1863,designed by John Dick Peddie in the Dutch Gothic style.

Dundee’s industrial history as a center for textile production is apparnt throughout the city.Numerous former jute mills remain standing and while some lay derelict,many have been converted into alternate usages.Of particular note are the Tay Works,built by the Gilroy Brothers Company 1850-1865,Comperdown Works in Lochee,which built and owned Cox Brothers,one of Europe’s largest jute manufacturing companies,and begun in 1849,and Upper Dens Mill and Lower Dens Works,built by the Baxter Brothers in the mid 19th century.

Transport
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Dundee is served by the A90 road which conects the city to the M90 motoway and Perth in the west,and Forfar and Aberdeen in the north.The part of the road that is the city is a dual carriageway (divided highway) and forms the city’s bypass on its north side,known as the Kingsway.East of the A90’s Forfar Road junction,the Kingsway East continues as the A972 road,and meets the A92 road at the Scott Fyffe roundabout (Rotary).Travelling east,the A92 road connects the city to Arbroath and Montrose and to the south with Fife via the Tay Road Bridge.

The A930 road links the city with coastal settlements to the east,including Broughty Ferry,Monifieth,and Carnousite.Progressing westward from where the A92 road meets the Tay Road Bridge at the Riverside Roundabout (Rotary),the A85 road follows the southern boundary of the city along Riverside Drive and towards the A90 road at the Swallow Roundabout (Rotary).The A85 road multiplexes with the A90 road and diverges again at Perth.

Also meeting the A92 road and A85 road at the Riverside Roundabout (Rotary) is the A991 road Inner Ring Road,which surrounds the perimeter of the city center,returning to the A92 road on the east side of the Tay Road Bridge.The A923 road Dundee to Dunkele Road meets the A991 road at the Dudhope Roundabout (Rotary),and the A929 road links the A991 road to the A90 road via Forfar Road.

Dundee has an extensive public bus transport system,with Seagat Bus Station serving as the city’s main terminus for journeys out of town.Natioal Express Dundee operates most of the intra-city services,with other more rural services operated by Stagecoach Strathtay.The city’s two railway stations are the main Dundee (Tay Bridge) Railway Station,which is situated near the waterfront and the much smaller Broughty Farry Railway Station,which is located to the eastern end of the city.There are complented by the stations at Invergowrie,Balmossie,and Monifieth.Passenger service at Dundee are provided by First Scotrail Railway,CrossCountry Railway,and East Coat Railway.There are no freight service that serve the city since Freightliner Group terminal in Dundee was closed in the 1980s.

There are also many intercity bus services offered by Megabus Coaches,Scottish Citylink Coaches Limited,and National Express Group.

Dundee Airport offers commercial flights to London City Airport,Birminghan International Airport,and George Best Belfast City Airport.The airport is capable of serving small aircraft and is located 1.86 miles (3 kilometers) west of the city center,adjacent to the River Tay.The nearest major international airport is Eddinburgh Airport,59.2 miles (95.3 kilometers) to the south.

The nearest international passenger seaport is Newcastle upon Tyne.

Education
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Schools

Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrolment of over 20,300.There are 37 primary state schools and nine secondary state schools in the city.Of these,11 primary schools and two secondary schools serve the city’s Catholic population;the remainder non-denominational.There is also one specialist school that caters for pupils with learning difficulties ages between five and 18 from Dundee and the surrounding area.

Dundee is home to one independet school,the High School of Dundee,which was founded in the 13th century by the Abbot and Monks of Lindores Abbey.The current building was designed by George Angus in a Greek Revival style and built in 1832-1834.Early students included Thomas Thomson,and Hector Boece,as well as the brothers James Wedderburn,John Wedderburn,Robert Wedderburn who were the authors of The Reformation as a vehicle to spead Protestant theology.It was the earlest reformed scoll in Scotlan,having adoped the new religion in 1554.According to Blind Harry’s also known Harry the Minstrel’s largely apocryphal work The Acts and Deidis of the Illustre and Campioun Sir Willian Wallace,Sir William Wallace was also educated in Dundee.

Colleges and Universities

Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 17,000.

The University of Dundee became an independent entity in 1967,afer around 70 years of being incorporated into the University of St.Andrews.It was founded in 1881 by Mary Ann Baxter and her distant cousin John Boyd Baxter as University College,Dundee.It fully merged eith the University of St.Andrews in 1897 and was reoranised as Queen’s College,Dundee in 1954.Significant reseach in biomedical field and oncology is carried out in the "College of Life Sciences".The University is also home to one of the United Kingdom’s top medical schools,based at the city’s Ninewells Hospital.The university also incororated the Duncan of Jordanstone School of Art and Design and teaching training college.

The University of Abertay Dundee was founded as Dundee Institute of Technology in 1888.It was granted university status in 1994 under the Further and Higher Education Act,1992.The universioty is noted for its computing and creative technology courses,particularly in computer games technology.

Dundee College is the city’s unbrella further education college,which was estabished in 1985 as an istitution of higher education and volational training.

The Al-Maktoum Institute was established in Dundee in Blackness Road.It is a reseach-led institution of higher eduction which offers postgraduate programmes of study (taught Master and MPHIL / PHD reseach) in the study of Islam and multiculturalism.It is an independent by the Univerity of Aberdeen.Its named after its paton,Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum.

Religious Sites
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Christian Groups

The Church of Scotland Presbytery of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around Dundee area,21 of which are in the city itselft,with a further five in Broughty Ferry and Barnhill,although changing population patterns have lead to some churches become linked charges.Due to their city center location,the City Churches,Dundee Parish Church (St.Mary’s) and the Steeple Church,are the most prominent Church of Scotland building in Dundee.They are on the site of the midieval parish kirk of St.Mary,of which only the 15th century west tower survives.The attached church was once the largest parish church in midieval Scotland.Dundee was unusual among Scottish midieval burgh in having two parish kirks;the second,dedicated to St.Clement,has disappeared,but its site was approximately that of the present City Square.

In the middle Ages Dundee was also the site of houses of Dominicans (Blackfriars),and Franciscans (Grayfiars),and had a number of hospitals and chapels.These estabilishments were sacked during the Scottish Reformation,in the mid-16th century,and were reduced to burial grounds,now Barrack Street and The Howff Burial Ground respectively.

St.Paul’s Cathedral is the seat to the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin.It is charged with overseeing the worship of 8 congregations in the city (9,including Broughty Ferry),as well as a further 17 in Angus,the Carse of Gowrie and part of Aberdeenshire.The diocese was led by Bishop Jon Ambrose Cyril Mantle when Bishop John Ambrose Cyril Mantle retired.The Diocese will be electing a ne bishop.St.Andrew’s Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic of Dunkeld,led by Bishop Vincet Paul Logan.The diocese is responsible for overseeing 15 congregations in Dundee and 37 in the surrounding area.

There are Methodist,Baptist,Congregationalist,United Reformed Church,Pentecostalist,and Salvation Army churches in the city,and non-mainstream Christian groups are also wel represented,including the Unitarians,the Society of Friends,the Jehovah’s witnesses,Seventh-day Adventist Christadelphians,and Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Non-Christian Groups

Muslims are served by Dundee Islamic Socitety Central Mosque in Brown Street to replace their former premises in Hilltown.There are also smaller mosques at Victoria Road and Dura Street.

A recorded Jewish community has existed in the city since the early 19th centruy.There is a small Orthodox Synagogue at Dudhope Park that was built in the 1960s,with the Hebrew Burial Grounds located three miles (5 kilometers) to the east.Samye Dzong Dundee is a Buddhist Temple based in Reform Street.There is also Hindu Mandir and Sikh Gurdware that share a premises in Taylor’s Lane situated in the West End of the city,and there is a second gurdware in Victoria Road.

Culture
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Dundee is home to the Scotlands’s only full-time repertory esemble,established in the 1930s.Onec of its alumni,Hollywood actor Brian Denis Cox is a native of the city.The Dundee Repertory Theater,built in 1982 is base for Scottish Dance Theater.

Dundee’s principal concent auditorium,the Caird Hall (named after its benefactor,the jute baron Sir James Key Caird 1st Baronet) in the City Square regulary host the Royal Scottish National Orchestra (RSNO).Various smaller venues host local and internation musicians during Dundee’s annual Jazz Festival,Guitar Festival,and Blues Festive.The Dundee Contemporary Arts,which opened in 1999 in city’s cultural quartes,is home to both an art gallery and art cinema.

The city’s main museum and art gallery,McManus Galleries is in Albert Sqare.The exhibits include a collection of fine art and decorative art,items from Dundee’s histoy artefacts and natural history artefacts.Britain’s only full-time public observatory,Mills Observatory at the summit of the city’s Balgay Hill was gifted to the city by linen manufacturer and amateur scientist John Mills in 1935.Sensation Science Center in the Greenmarket is a science center based on the five senses through a series of interactive shows and exhibits.Verdant Works is a museum dedicated to the once dominat jute industry in Dundee and is based in a former jute mill.The University of Dundee also runs serveal public museums and galleries including the Sir D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson Zoology Museum and the Tay Medical History Museum.A new $ 75 million center for art and design known as the "V&A at Dundee" is to be built south of Craig Harbor onto the River Tay for completion.The new museum bring another 500,000 extra visitors to the city and create up to 900 jobs for the area.

The city’s archives and records are mostly kept by two archives,Dundee City Archives,which are operated by Dundee City Council and the University of Dundee’s Archive Services.Dundee City Archives holds the offical records of the city and of the former Tayside Regional Council the archive also holds the records of various people groups and organizations connected to the city.The University’s Archive Services hold a wild range of material relating to individuals associated with the University such as Sir D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson.Archive Service is also home to athe archives of several individuals,businesses and organizations based in Dundee and the surrounding area.The records held include a substantial number of business archives relating to the jute industry and linen industry in Dundee,records of other businesses including the archives of the Alliance Trust,and the department store G.L.Wilson,the records of the Brechin Diocese of the Scottish Episcopal Church,and the Scottish National Helth Service Tayside Archive.The same archive also holds the Michael Peto collection with includes thousans of the famed photojournalist’s photographs,negatives,slides,publications,and papers.

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